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Pollen morphology of 17 species of Viola representing five sections, Melanium,  Plagiostigma, 'Spathulidium' ined., Sclerosium, and Viola, was studied using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains were usually symmetrical, tetrazonocolporate to pentazonocolporate in section Melanium and trizonocolporate to tetrazonocolporate in the other four sections. Pollen shape was circular to subtriangular, tetragonal or pentagonal in polar view and prolate to oblate, spheroidal or pyramidal in equatorial view. Exine ornamentation was granulate, psilate and mostly perforate. The psilate type was only observed in V. modesta. We found heteromorphy in aperture number in V. caspia of section Viola, V. occulta of section Melanium and V. behboudiana of section Sclerosium, which corroborates their higher ploidy than in related species (octoploid versus tetraploid).


Viola Palynology Iran

Article Details

Author Biographies

Shahryar Saeidi Mehrvarz, University of Guilan

Department of Biology, Assitant professor

Narjes Yousefi, University of Guilan

Department of Biology, Postgraduate in Botany

Maryam Mohammadi, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan

Department of Biology,Master's Student in botany

Thomas Marcussen, University of Gothenburg ,Associate Prof.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Associate Prof.
How to Cite
Saeidi Mehrvarz, S., Yousefi, N., Mohammadi, M., & Marcussen, T. (2014). Pollen studies in the genus Viola (Violaceae) from Iran. Acta Botanica Croatica, 73(1). Retrieved from