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A taxonomic revision of the genus Glaucium (Papaveraceae) in Iran is presented. It reveals the presence of 10 species including 4 subspecies and 14 varieties. Two new taxa are described: G. yazdianum and G. vitellinum var. pilosum. G. yazdianum is related to G. calycinum in general, but is differentiated by shape and cellular structure of trichomes on young fruits and sepals, the shape of filaments and stem leaves and finally the length of siliquae and buds. Pollen and leaf epidermis morphology of these two species are compared, keeping this criterion in mind. G. pulchrum, G. elegantissimum and G. golestanicum are treated here as synonyms of G. oxylobum. An identification key to the genus Glaucium in Iran and for each taxon a morphological description and notes on their distribution and habitats are presented.