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During a floristic survey of the northern slopes of Matokit Mountain in the surroundings of Vrgorac in central Dalmatia, a peculiar population of Cardamine belonging to the C. maritima complex was found. Because of its morphology, general habit, type of leaves and fruits, the collected plants were recognized as C. fialae hitherto know only from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Morphologically, C. fialae is similar to the Serbian endemic C. serbica with which it shares following characteristics: auricules at the base of lower cauline leaves, stem and rosette leaves bipinnate, margin of leaflets serrate with hairy main stem and sepals, although it differs in having bigger petals and sepals, longer filaments and 1–2 lateral stems. C. fialae grows on lower altitudes in rocky ground within the vegetation of forest fringes of the sub-Mediterranean zone. This is the first report of the endemic species C. fialae in Croatian flora.
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