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The Illyric–Balkan endemic species Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. is very interesting as a potential horticultural and medicinal plant. The aim of this study was to investigate soil conditions of M. petraea habitats, the phenolic content in plant parts, and the influence of soil properties on the phenolic contents. The results were evaluated using Spearman rank order correlations. Analyzed soil samples contained very low to intermediate levels of physiologically active phosphorus, but were very rich in potash. Organic matter content of soil was high. Phenolic compound content was higher in leaves than in flowers or stems. The analyses showed that M. petraea possesses considerable quantities of phenolic compounds and has no specific demands for particular soil conditions. A negative correlation was found between soil phosphorus content and total phenols content in leaves and stems, and with the total phenolic acids content in fl owers. Organic matter in soil also found to have a negative infl uence on total tannins content in stems. Among the tested geographical locations, the Mljet population showed a higher degree of separation from the remaining locations.