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The ESEM investigations revealed the morphogenesis of peltate glandular trichomes, which was divided into five phases. In phase one, new peltate glandular trichomes were initiated; in phase two, they were differentiated; in phase three trichomes grew vigorously; in phase four they were determined; in the fifth and final phase they came to maturity. Volume of glandular trichome during the different phases of morphogenesis varied from 0.25 ´ 10–2mm3 in phase 1, to 1.95 ´ 10–2mm3 in phase 5. More glandular trichomes are placed on the base of the adaxial side of bracts (average 7 mm–2) than on the base of abaxial side (average 5.8 mm–2). In this research, positive spearman's rank order correlations were found between the average number of glandular trichomes and content of a-acids as well as between the average volume of glandular trichomes and content of a- acids.


Humulus lupulus trichome morphogenesis ESEM alpha-acid

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Srecec, S., Zechner Krpan, V., Marag, S., Spoljaric, I., Kvaternjak, I., & Mrsic, G. (2011). Morphogenesis, volume and number of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) glandular trichomes, and their influence alpha acids in fresh bracts of hop cones. Acta Botanica Croatica, 70(1). Retrieved from

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