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The Panicum capillare complex includes several taxa, among them P. capillare L., which is usually considered to be an established alien throughout Europe, whereas other species are recorded only as casuals. A new representative of the complex, P. riparium H. Scholz was described from Germany in 2002, and shortly after its description was recorded in several countries on the continent. In the course of herbarium revisions and recent fi eld studies the authors documented several localities of the species in Croatia as well. The paper presents a new key for the determination of Croatian species of the complex and anticipates the invasion of P. riparium in the sub-Mediterranean regions of the Balkan Peninsula.