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Seeds of chickpea inoculated with Rhizobium were sown in pots supplemented with different doses of cadmium (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg per kg of soil). At the stage of 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were sprayed with 20 mM solution of proline and were sampled at 90 DAS to assess the various parameters. The foliar treatment of proline resulted in the alleviation of the adverse effects generated by metal exposure, which wasexpressed in terms of the increase in plant growth. The activity of carbonic anhydrase in the cadmium-fed plants sprayed with proline was higher than that of control. The prolineapplied as foliar spray increased the photosynthetic attributes and yield characteristics in the cadmium-stressed plants. The activity of antioxidative enzymes increased with increasing concentration of cadmium. Maximum values were recorded in the plants exposed to 100 mg cadmium per kg of soil.


antioxidative enzymes cadmium stress Cicer arietinum growth photosynthesis proline yield

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Author Biography

Shamsul Hayat, Department of Botany & Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Associate Professor
How to Cite
Hayat, S., Hayat, Q., Alyemeni, M. N., & Ahmad, A. (2013). Proline enhances antioxidative enzyme activity, photosynthesis and yield of Cicer arietinum L. exposed to cadmium stress. Acta Botanica Croatica, 72(2). Retrieved from