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Satellite DNAis a genomic component present in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. The turnover of highly repetitive satellite DNAis an important element in genome organization and evolution in plants. Here we study the presence, physical distribution and abundance of the satellite DNA family AhTR1 in Anemone. Twenty-two Anemone accessions were analyzed by PCR to assess the presence of AhTR1, while fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern hybridization were used to determine the abundance and genomic distribution of AhTR1. The AhTR1 repeat unit was PCR-amplified only in eight phylogenetically related European Anemone taxa of the Anemone section. FISH signal with AhTR1 probe was visible only in A. hortensis and A. pavonina, showing localization of AhTR1 in the regions of interstitial heterochromatin in both species. The absence of a FISH signal in the six other taxa as well as weak signal after Southern hybridization suggest that in these species AhTR1 family appears as relict sequences. Thus, the data presented here support the »library hypothesis« for AhTR1 satellite evolution in Anemone. Similar species-specific satellite DNAprofiles in A. hortensis and A. pavonina support the treatment of A. hortensis and A. pavonina as one species, i.e. A. hortensis s.l.