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Pollination patterns i.e. the proportions of entomophilous, anemophilous, autogamous and hydrophilous plant species and those useful for the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in the flora and vegetation of northern Croatia have been determined. The survey included 507 plant taxa, belonging to 95 plant families. The results show that most plant species employ insect pollination (73.6%), followed by self-pollination (30%), wind (25%) and water pollination (0.6%). For some plant species there are one, two or more modes of pollination; the largest group consists of pure insect pollination (43%), followed by both insect and self-pollination (27%), pure wind pollination (22%), insect and wind pollination (2.6%), and so on. Overall, 54% of plant species useful to European honey bees were found, 51% of which provide pollen and 47% nectar. These results suggest that A. mellifera could be a potential pollinator for about half of the flora. Analysis shows significant differences in pollination patterns among habitat types and that most entomophilous plant taxa are found in grassland, forest and ruderal sites, indicating that these habitats are most important for pollinators. Other characteristics of plant species, such as flowering time, plant family, life form and ori- gin, were also analysed to determine a possible relationship with pollination.


European honey bee insect pollinators life forms plant families

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How to Cite
Stančić, Z., & Fiket, Željka. (2023). Pollination patterns of flora and vegetation in northern Croatia with reference to Apis mellifera. Acta Botanica Croatica, 82(1).


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