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The embryological features, mode of reproduction and reproductive capacity (pollen and seed viability) on two naturalized populations of Arnica montana in Bulgaria were studied. The embryological study shows that A. montana is a facultative apomictic species in which sexual reproduction predominates. In this species, it was established that there is a comparatively high viability of the mature pollen and embryos, which enables the successful realization of its reproductive capacity. The results of the study on A. montana reveal that both sexual and asexual vegetative reproduction with rhizomes undoubtedly play more important roles than the apomixis (namely diplospory) for support and preservation of the populations


apomixis Arnica montana embryology male and female gametophyte pollen and seed viability sexual reproduction

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Author Biography

Elina Petrova Yankova-Tsvetkova, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia

Department of Plant and Fungal Diversity and Resources
How to Cite
Yankova-Tsvetkova, E. P., Yurukova-Grancharova, P., Baldjiev, G., & Vitkova, A. (2016). Embryological features, pollen and seed viability of Arnica montana (Asteraceae) – a threatened endemic species in Europe. Acta Botanica Croatica, 75(1). Retrieved from

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