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In this study we used Medicago truncatula, to identify and analyze the expression of small GTP-binding proteins (Arf1, Arl1, Sar1, Rabs, Rop/Rac) and their interacting partners in the infection process in the roots and nodules. A real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was carried out and our results showed that Arf1 (AtArfB1c-like), MtSar1, AtRabA1e-like, AtRabC1-like, MsRab11-like and AtRop7-like genes were highly expressed
in the nodules of rhizobium inoculated plants compared to the non inoculated ones. On the contrary, AtRabA3 like, AtRab5c and MsRac1-like genes were highly expressed in non-infected nitrogen supplied roots of M. truncatula. Other Rab genes (AtRabA4a, AtRabA4c and AtRabG3a-like genes) were nearly equally expressed in both treatments. Interestingly, RbohB (a respiratory burst NADPH oxidase homologue) was more highly expressed
in rhizobium infected than in non-infected roots and nodules. Our data show a differential expression pattern of small GTP-binding proteins in roots and nodules of the plants. This study demonstrates an important role of small GTP-binding proteins in symbiosome biogenesis and root nodule development in legumes.